Research

JCOIN includes 13 clinical research centers (“Research Hubs”), that are studying evidence-informed approaches to ensure quality care is provided to individuals with opioid use disorder in justice settings, and two resource centers that conduct complementary studies and provide supportive infrastructure: the Coordination and Translation Center (CTC) and the Methodology and Advanced Analytics Resource Center (MAARC).

JCOIN Studies

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Research Translation

Breakdowns of research regarding substance use disorders within health and justice settings.

JCOIN Studies

Each JCOIN study brings researchers together with justice and health stakeholders in five or more communities to address gaps in opioid use disorder treatment and related services. Their work engages a wide range of justice settings, including jails, prisons, community corrections, problem-solving courts, and juvenile justice agencies. The studies evaluate behavioral interventions, digital therapeutics, comprehensive patient-centered treatments, and delivery of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) throughout the United States.

In 2018-2020, JCOIN supported 15 accelerator supplement projects, which included short-term studies and surveys.

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Effectiveness of Initiating Treatment Services Through Telehealth and Peer Navigation For Women Prior to Re-entry from Jail (030)

Principal Investigator(s): Michele Staton

This study will evaluate the effectiveness of initiating treatment services through telehealth and peer navigation for justice-involved women with opioid use disorder (OUD) as they transition from jail to the community. Through these services, participants will be able to engage with community health providers and peer navigators prior to release.

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JCOIN Dynamic Network Collaboration Study (029)

Principal Investigator(s): Bruce Taylor, Kayo Fujimoto

The NORC at the University of Chicago, in partnership with the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, is conducting a longitudinal study to measure how collaborations and partnerships between researchers and practitioners within the JCOIN network change over time. The study will collect annual data over five years via online surveys and will be supplemented by automated web scraping to capture members’ publications, chapters, books, presentations, reports, and grants. Capturing changes in JCOIN members’ collaboration, productivity, publications, and grant activities will offer NIDA an opportunity to understand how collaborations within the JCOIN network improve when supporting a large network of substance abuse researchers and practitioners.

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National Longitudinal Jail and Prison Survey (028)

Principal Investigator(s): John Schneider, Bruce Taylor

Despite the effectiveness of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), there is a lack of information about what is currently available, accessible, and used throughout the jail and prison systems of the US. To better address this gap, the NORC at the University of Chicago will study how prisons and jails across 24 justictions are addressing opioid use disorder.

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AmeriSpeak in Depth Public Opinion Survey on Opioids (027)

Principal Investigator(s): Bruce Taylor

The NORC at the University of Chicago is conducting a comprehensive study to measure the public’s view of policies, practices, attitudes and laws related to addressing opioids in justice settings across the U.S. This study builds on the topics from the JCOIN AmeriSpeak Brief Opioid Stigma Survey (026) and will also assess how support varies based on personal experiences with opioids or knowing someone who struggled with an OUD and variations by type of opioid and respondent characteristics.

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AmeriSpeak Brief Opioid Stigma Survey (026)

Principal Investigator(s): Bruce Taylor

To assess how stigma changes overtime, the NORC at the University of Chicago is conducting a study to measure public support for opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment, assess stigma associated with OUD, and perceptions of criminality around OUD. This study will use a nationally representative survey panel and will administer short surveys twice a year for a total of five years. The data collected from this study will allow for a better understanding of the public’s opinion on issues related to OUD, stigma, and the justice system and how perceptions change over time.

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Mapping Federal Opioid Investments in Justice Systems (025)

Principal Investigator(s): Colleen Grogan

The University of Chicago is conducting a large-scale environmental scan of federally funded substance use-related initiatives and resources to understand how funds and resources are distributed across states. The study will also explore urban and rural differences, differences across areas based upon local drug-use epidemiology and availability of service resources and how federal funds are addressing opioid use disorders and other emerging drug-related challenges.

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Supportive Social Networks and OUD Outcomes (024)

Principal Investigator(s): John Schneider, Carrie Oser

Social support networks have been an invaluable tool to combat addiction and other health interventions. The concept of social support networks as a powerful force in the health of substance users is well documented. Effective substance use disorder (SUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment approaches have been effectively combined with the inclusion of naturally-occurring support persons. The concept of organic social support has been under-utilized for retaining community members in SUD treatment programs.

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Substance Use and Treatment Trajectories at Entry and Re-Entry: A Network Analytic Approach (023)

Principal Investigator(s): John Schneider

Diverse communities enter the justice system, exit and re-enter to create a complex circulation driven by a number of social and structural factors. Often ignored are important social interactions that drive opioid use disorder (OUD) or methamphetamine use. Social learning and differential association theories hold that risky behaviors, including rationalizations for them, diffuse through social networks of close ties. Furthermore, network members influence behavior by virtue of the behavioral example they provide, the normative pressures they exert, and perceptions of these influences. If we understand how OUD/meth or recovery/renewed use moves through networks and their local geographic contexts, we will be able to develop new interventions, and determine previously unobserved mechanisms as to why interventions may fail or have success.

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Predictive-analytic Models of Opioid Overdose and Reoffending (022)

Principal Investigator(s): Harold Pollack

The University of Chicago is developing open-source software that can be used by researchers and practitioners to predict overdose and re-offending risk of their population. This project will use large administrative datasets and machine-learning technology to develop a framework for transparent predictive models and simulations to help identify people at highest risk and how populations will benefit from interventions, and explore the likely policy impact of observed relationships among emerging trends to improve outcomes.

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Spatially Extended Treatment Effect Analysis of Access to MOUD Resources and Changing Policies (021)

Principal Investigator(s): Marynia Kolak

Across the country, various public health interventions, opioid use policies, and criminal justice policies have emerged in response to the opioid epidemic in recent years. Many of the policies help improve access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) and related services. However, the impact of improving access to these resources on health outcomes can vary substantially in different local contexts under various policies.

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Finding an Optimal Distance of Success: Measuring Access to Critical Resources in Opioid Use Disorder Justice Settings (020)

Principal Investigator(s): Marynia Kolak

The University of Chicago is developing an agent-based network model (ABNM) framework to study location-specific evolution and dynamics of opioid use disorder (OUD) in justice settings. The Justice Community Circulation Model framework is designed to help researchers and practitioners explore underlying mechanisms, epidemiological processes and interactions, such as the health and mortality pathways of individuals who experience non-fatal overdose or who initiate treatment, among justice-involved individuals with OUD.

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Measuring Social and Spatial Inequities in Access to Opioid Use Disorder Treatment for Reducing HIV and HCV Transmissions (019)

Principal Investigator(s): Marynia Kolak, Jonathan Ozik

Access to treatment and medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) is essential for reducing HIV and HCV transmissions. However, the spatial distribution of the resources for treatment and medication is a result of various social factors, which can include potential inequities.

To demonstrate the utility of a spatial perspective in evaluating access to MOUD resources, the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory will use a simulation approach to evaluate how treatment and intervention locations affect HIV and HCV transmissions.

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In Silico JCOIN Trial Models (018)

Principal Investigator(s): John Schneider

Computational analogues of the JCOIN clinical research centers, so called in silico clinical trials, in the form of data-driven, agent-based network models (ABNMs), can provide a variety of simulation-based analyses to investigate longer-term health outcomes beyond the clinical trial timelines. Building on the Justice-Community Circulation Model (JCCM), the University of Chicago will apply the JCCM framework to develop in silico versions of JCOIN’s clinical research trials to run computational trials such as optimizing cross-study combinations of interventions or tracking additional and emerging outcome.

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Justice-Community Circulation Model (017)

Principal Investigator(s): John Schneider

The University of Chicago is developing an agent-based network model (ABNM) framework to study location-specific evolution and dynamics of opioid use disorder (OUD) in justice settings. The Justice Community Circulation Model framework is designed to help researchers and practitioners explore underlying mechanisms, epidemiological processes and interactions, such as the health and mortality pathways of individuals who experience non-fatal overdose or who initiate treatment, among justice-involved individuals with OUD.

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JCOIN Perceived Communication Effectiveness Instrument Development Study (016)

Principal Investigator(s): Faye Taxman, Xiaoquan Zhao

George Mason University is conducting a study to test and refine a newly developed instrument designed to measure perceived effectiveness of communication products. The intention of the study is to provide the Network with an instrument that can be used to measure the impact of all JCOIN communication products. The study team is piloting the instrument with two sites, the Iowa Department of Corrections and the Arizona Supreme Court. The goal of the study is to develop and validate a communication effectiveness instrument to measure the potential impact of training, and technical assistance related to research to practice issues.

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Systematic Review: Implementation of Medications for Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder within the Criminal Justice System (015)

Principal Investigator(s): Michael Dennis

Policies aimed at addressing the high rates of opioid overdose have prioritized increasing access to medications for treatment of opioid use disorder (MOUD). Numerous barriers exist to providing MOUD within the criminal justice system and/or to justice-involved populations. The aim of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on implementation of MOUD within criminal justice settings and with justice-involved populations.

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Expand NFLIS Analyses and Conduct Geospatial Analytics with Drug Arrest Data to Examine Access to Opioid Use Disorder Services (014)

Principal Investigator(s): Eric Wish, Erin Artigiani, Kathleen Stewart

The University of Maryland’s Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR) established the Coordinating Center for the National Drug Early Warning System (NDEWS) for NIDA in 2014. NDEWS is a public health surveillance system that generates critically needed information about drugs and their public health consequences so that rapid, informed, and effective public health responses can be developed. Over the past four years, the Coordinating Center has developed national and international collaborations to support the ability to identify, monitor, and follow-up on emerging drugs and changing drug trends. These capabilities will be used in studies to link scientists and practitioners from the justice and public health fields and to generate resources and tools to support improvements in both fields.

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Feasibility of a Citizen-Driven Hackathon to Increase Public Engagement and Solutions to Address the Opioid Crisis (013)

Principal Investigator(s): Sean Young

This study explored the feasibility and acceptability of hosting a hackathon to scale design and development of new creative opioid crisis-related modeling and visualization tools for public health and justice-related stakeholders. Through qualitative interviews with hackathon participants, public health and justice-related stakeholders, and key government implementation stakeholders (e.g., high-level county and state public health officials) during and one year after the hackathon, it examined the implementation science-related barriers and facilitators to implementing solutions created at the hackathon. Findings can help address barriers to successful implementation, a major limitation of current hackathons.

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Community-Based, Client-Centered Prevention Homes to Address the Rural Opioid Epidemic (012)

Principal Investigator(s): Ryan Westergaard

The goal of this research is to estimate the effects of increased Medicaid availability for adults released from prison in Wisconsin on treatment access, use, and outcomes for opioid use disorder (OUD). Specifically, we will investigate the degree to which two policy changes affecting Medicaid eligibility for low-income, childless adults were associated with increased use of medication assisted treatment (MAT) by adults with opioid use disorder during the first six months after release from prison. We will create a novel longitudinal database comprised of Wisconsin Medicaid claims data, linked to administrative and correctional health systems data for a retrospectively defined cohort of adults who were incarcerated and released from a state prison between 2013-17. This will allow an in-depth analysis of the utilization of medication assisted treatment (MAT) by people diagnosed with opioid use disorder during community re-entry. This work has the potential to inform health policy nationally by documenting health gains and potential reductions in recidivism that may result from increased access to MAT through expansion of Medicaid.

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Extending SIC-Coaching to Address Opioid and Methamphetamine Abuse in Parents Involved in the Child Welfare and Criminal Justice Systems (011)

Principal Investigator(s): Lisa Saldana

This Administrative Supplement request, DAT: Extending SIC-Coaching to Address Opioid and Methamphetamine Abuse in Parents Involved in the Child Welfare and Criminal Justice Systems, builds upon the work proposed in the parent grant (Facilitating Sustainment Through Implementation Feedback: The SIC Coaching Model; 1 R01 DA044745-01), by extending it to develop an empirically-based implementation approach for a supported intervention to address the needs of families affected by the rapid rise in opioid and methamphetamine addiction.

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