Neighborhood Incarceration Rates and Adverse Birth Outcomes in New York City, 2010-2014


This cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the New York City Department of Health (2010-2014). Censored Poisson regression, with the US Census tract as the unit of analysis, was used to examine the association of neighborhood incarceration rate and birth outcomes. Multivariable models included percentage of births aggregated to the Census tract by maternal factors (age, parity, singleton vs multiple birth, insurance, and race) and neighborhood factors (poverty, education, and violent crime). Neighborhood incarceration rate was positively associated with adverse birth outcomes, particularly those associated with infant mortality. Black people were significantly more likely to live in high-incarceration neighborhoods, suggesting that mass incarceration may contribute to racial disparities in birth outcomes.

Publication Year: 2023

Lead Author: Louisa Holaday

Journal: JAMA Network Open